As a conscientious writer with an academic background I tend to try very hard to write correctly in all my publications and communications. Obviously sometimes one is rushed or typing on a small smartphone, so a few typos get by the self-editing phase. Occasionally I’m surprised at myself that I have typed the wrong spelling for a word, such as “their” for “they’re”, when I know very well the correct word to use, but in my haste the wrong word came out of my fingers. This seems to happen even for parts of words, where I always mistype some words the first time because they contain a sequence of characters that occurs frequently that leads me to follow with an incorrect one. An example for me is words that end in “in”, which will often automatically get a “g” after them, which I then need to backspace.
Some people don’t care about editing, and so be it. However there are some situations when I think it is our responsibility to be as correct in our writing as we can be. One of those situations is in resources for language learners. I have learnt through my attempts to write in another language that it is nearly impossible to write like a native speaker of the language. Languages are just too large to know all the phrases and collocations, let alone the vocabulary and grammar that most people manage to master. So, if you care about quality then the thing to do is to have a native-speaking proof-reader for your work. Some of the books in my collection have clearly made use of colleagues to do language checking, and that gives me a bit more faith in the authenticity of the language that I’m being exposed to. But in my recent scan of language books on Smashwords I was horrified at the poor quality writing, even just in the introductory blurb. There were some very poorly written English stories aimed at the Chinese ESL market. On the plus side, Chinese students of English would find them easier to read than stories with more English-like English, but it doesn’t give them the chance to absorb correct English grammar as they read. Likewise I found a Canadian book in French that, even with my B1-level French I could tell had incorrect grammar in the blurb.
So, advice to those writing stories for language learners (and anyone wanting to write as well as possible in a foreign language):
- Write stories in your own native (or best) language. It’s more likely to be correct.
- If you write in a foreign language (as I do), then it is imperative that you have a native speaker check it for you. You can’t trust (old) dictionaries, or sometimes even textbooks, to help you write correctly.
- Some techniques that can help you write correctly (before you get it checked) is to use a corpus-based dictionary, a concordancer, and a search engine. Check that words you want to use are actually used in the way you intend. Check the preposition that is normally used.
- Software is being developed that helps users improve or check their writing. MS Word has a grammar checker, so it can be useful for checking (but you can’t rely on it completely). Other prototype systems are being developed, some of which I saw at CoLing 2016 in Osaka recently, and another at the English Australia 2016 Conference in Hobart. Use the tools available to you.
The first time I had a near-native speaker check my comic book draft it was an eye-opener. I learnt that I couldn’t trust my old Cassells French-English dictionary, and that I couldn’t trust my high school textbook. The second (or was it third) time I had a native speaker read through the story she picked up an error that the first proof-reader didn’t. The final proof-reader was my narrator, who only remarked upon one phrase which remains in the comic “Le total?”, which occurs when a native speaker is more likely to use the expression “l’addition”. It is grammatically and semantically correct but unusual. I’ve allowed that expression to remain.
The sad thing for those who aim for quality writing is that there is possibly not much reward in it. There are many stories on Amazon and Smashwords that are full of grammatical errors, but they probably still earn dollars. Producing quality work takes more time and effort. Hopefully my comic book will find its audience that recognises the quality of the work and that it is worth the cover price.
After many years in development, and release in physical form in 2014, my comic is finally available as an eBook.
Cover of Gnomeville Dragon! Episode 1.
This is the first episode in what is arguably the easiest book in French for native English speakers. Designed to introduce one or two new words or concepts per page, and to exploit the over 1,000 words that are the same in French and English, you learn the most frequently occurring words in French, while being entertained with a story about gnomes, mages and dragons. While the series is optimised for language learning, by using sight gags and visual humour it still manages to be entertaining from the first few pages. Follow the story of Jacques, Magnifica the mage, the gnomes Didi and Dada, and the griffon as they commence a quest to capture a rogue dragon.
The book includes further stories to reinforce the vocabulary learnt so far, as well as a crossword and songs. The mp3 file of the narration by a native French speaker of the Gnomeville Episode 1 story is available from the author on email of the receipt as proof of purchase (first 500 buyers). The first 10 customers will receive all audio tracks of Episode 1 (3 stories, 2 songs), while the first 100 customers will receive the narration and one song.
The comic book has been checked by three native/near-native speakers of French to ensure authenticity. It exploits several principles of language acquisition:
- language can be acquired by reading extensively at a comfortable level of difficulty;
- images increase retention of language;
- glosses increase vocabulary retention;
- repeated occurrences of new vocabulary increase vocabulary retention;
- comprehension-based activities (eg. crossword) related to the reading improves retention of language;
- once ~95% vocabulary coverage is achieved (episode 2), then it is possible to guess the meaning of new words, and confirm by checking the gloss after guessing, which further increases vocabulary retention.
In summary, this is a well-researched, well-edited, entertaining introduction to reading French via an extremely easy to read comic book. Read it before you read anything else in French. Read it now!
I’ve been reading my collection of very easy Japanese graded readers in recent weeks, and was very pleased to successfully order all the level 0 books from ask-books.com. This gives me a collection of 18 books in addition to the 3 level 0 books I had from NPO. I’m currently making my way through them.
My knowledge of Japanese is quite limited really: I learnt a bit from the Let’s Learn Japanese TV series, then from the first book of the Kimono Japanese language school text book, a short course based on the Japanese for Busy People textbook prior to a one-week visit to Japan, and then pretty much just doing extensive reading and occasionally revising my hiragana and katakana (and another short trip to Japan). So some of the level 0 books (and some level 1 which is the same vocabulary base) are roughly the right level for me. The others are perhaps a little difficult, however, the design of the books is such that you can follow the story via the pictures and pick up vocabulary by deduction a lot of the time.
While I try to avoid looking up words (well, actually I’m pretty lazy anyway), I allow myself to look up one or two words after I’ve read through a book to either confirm my guess at its meaning, or to make the meaning clearer where there were too many words I didn’t know to follow the story. I will sometimes reread the story after having done so – I’m only reading very short stories so this doesn’t take long.
Via the Japanese Level Up site I discovered another blog with information about extensive reading, together with reviews of Japanese graded readers, and also how to access an on-line library of Japanese picture books. Given that the tadoku competition favours new books over rereading, I’ll probably hit the picture books once I run out of my readers.
I’ve been musing a lot lately about the first words we learn in a language. Children first communicate in one-word sentences, then tw0-word and then later more complex sentences. There is evidence that the same happens for second language learners. In my experience of picking up a language via TV series, it seems to hold true. The first words learnt are those that occur frequently in one-word sentences. This happens for exclamations, like “Ah!”, and “yes”, and “no”. As time goes on, it becomes possible to identify the words in longer sentences, and eventually to be able to notice patterns in sentences.
Level 0: Single-word nouns or adjectives – if the book is nicely illustrated in a way that makes the words identifiable, not too long, and maybe has some punchline equivalent at the end, as some do, then these are good for practising an unfamiliar alphabet such as hiragana and katakana. The words are typically not high priority words, but tend to recur in stories anyway. I have had enough repetition of certain animal words that I know them, even though they are not very useful for me when communicating to others.
Level 1: Repeated sentence structure – as above, these are excellent reading practice, and can help people learn some basic grammatical structures, while a story of some kind is told via the repeated sentence having different substituted nouns that are identifiably illustrated. The LOTE series by Nelson Price Milburn are very good in this regard. If they were longer than they are, then they would be tedious, but there are about 6-7 repetitions with minor variations, followed by a punchline of some sort. The books by Evrat Jones, published by PCS Publications, are not as good, largely because of the illustrations. Maybe I’m biased against old-fashioned repetitive images that look like dorky Grade 1 readers from the sixties, but their lack of appeal makes them more of a chore to read through. They would also benefit from a glossary at the back.
Level 2: Small vocabulary and a small set of grammatical constructions. Here is where the typical vocabulary-controlled reader fits into the scheme of things. Within this level are all the stages of most published reading schemes, taking readers from around 300 words of vocabulary to 2,000, and from present tense to all the normal grammatical constructions.
Level 3: Native text.
Reading at levels 0 and 1 for the past week or so has me thinking there is a niche for books at these levels for adults. Given an adult’s greater world knowledge and sophistication, it should be possible to create a more interesting narrative with these levels than is currently seen.
In my French reading, partly to continue using extensive reading, and also partly research for my writing of comic books in French, I’ve started reading more children’s books. The J’Aime Lire series from Bayard was an excellent place to start. They publish for specific ages: 6, 7, 8, 9, etc. While the difficulty for a foreign language learner varies sometimes, the books for 6-8 year-olds mostly work for me, and seem to match a ~1000 word vocabulary or A2/B1 level.
One thing I found with reading children’s fantasy novels is that they are very vivid, and it is easy to become engrossed in this fantasy world, with a feeling of wonder. I had the same experience when reading the first volume of Harry Potter (and as a child when reading Enid Blyton). My comic book also has this vividness about it – partly because it is a brightly-coloured comic book. I’m not sure if it is the fantasy element, the illustrations or a property of the writing that makes it so. In the case of Harry Potter it can only have been created via the text, as I read it before seeing any movies of it.
I’ve been taking part in the Tadoku competition again this month, in French, Japanese and German.
My Japanese is pretty basic, so I’m reading beginner readers that have only a couple of sentences on each page at most, with the majority of them being repetitious in order to give practice at certain phrases. Only a few of these are particularly enjoyable in terms of text content: The Shinkansen series previously published by Heinemann are good. The DEE Publications readers are good practice and have nice illustrations, but can’t be classed as particularly entertaining. The interesting part of those books are actually the cultural notes at the end in English. Some Japanese little books for very young children that I acquired in Japan are amusing, partly for their innovative layout (Inai inai baa!).
In French I’ve been reading books at the 700-1000 word vocabulary level, plus a few other books of a similar level of difficulty. After reading quite a few books for adolescents about adventures and mysteries etc, I seem to have hit saturation point with the genre. I’m still enjoying crime mysteries and some classic stories (though not all), but my new interest is stories from Africa. There is a series of African stories published by Heinemann in 5 levels of difficulty. I stumbled across these when visiting a Dutch shopping site, and ordered a couple at Niveau 3 to try. They are a refreshing change from the fodder I’ve been reading recently. They don’t pull any punches though. I’ve read La Valise Ensorcelée, which has an element of magic to it, as well as a moral. I’ve also read “L’usine de la Mort”. This book shocked me a little, but I’m glad I read it. I don’t think it’s great literature by any stretch, but certainly interesting, moving, and sufficiently different for the jaded easy reader reader. As a result I’ve bought more books from the series.